Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT

by Dr. Randy Smith of Antiaging Atlanta

Muscle Wasting and Sarcopenia Treated With Resistance Exercise and Testosterone, HGH, SARMS, Myostatin, and Other Agents.

2017 Nov;4(4):492-498. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12237.

Muscle wasting and sarcopenia in heart failure and beyond: update 2017.

Author information

Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG), Göttingen, Germany.
Division of Cardiology and Metabolism-Heart Failure, Cachexia and Sarcopenia, Department of Cardiology (CVK); and Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT); Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung (DZHK) Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.


Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone. Other investigational drugs include selective androgen receptor modulators, growth hormone, IGF-1, compounds targeting myostatin signaling, which have their own set of side effects. There are abundant prospective targets for improving muscle function in the elderly with or without chronic heart failure, and the continuing development of new treatment strategies and compounds for sarcopenia and cardiac cachexia makes this field an exciting one.


Cardiac cachexia; Muscle wasting; Sarcopenia

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